No matter which Operating System you are running, copying one file or a folder from one location to another is the most basic task you perform daily. On a busy day at work, during a project assignment at school, or during the ongoing development of a project, copying files from location A to location B is inevitable.
Copying of files or folders is usually done using the GUI. Linux takes care of your habit to work on the terminal by providing a command-line utility that allows you to copy files or folders from one location to another. Using the
cp command with a variety of options gives you the freedom to copy files and folders in multiple ways.
Let me walk you through this article where you will learn about the
cp command and the ways to copy directories along with their content.
Options available with
These are the most common options used with the
cp command in the context of copying a directory and all its content.
|verbose mode (shows progress)|
|copy directories recursively|
|do not overwrite an existing file or folder|
|prompt before overwrite|
Copy a directory from one location to another
Let’s start with the most basic use of the
cp command. We will use this command with the option
-r option ensures that the sub-folders and files inside the directory you are copying, will also be copied.
cp -r [source_location] [target_location]
I have two directories inside my current working directory called ‘project’ and ‘workspace’.
In this example, I’ll use the
cp -r command to copy the directory ‘project’ along with all its content to a new location i.e. ‘/home/gaurav/workspace’. This simply means that I’m copying the directory named ‘project’ to a directory named ‘workspace’.
These are the contents of the directory ‘project’. Using the
ls command to display its contents.
gaurav@ubuntu:~/project$ ls -al total 288 drwxr-xr-x 6 gaurav gaurav 4096 Sep 17 18:26 . drwxr-xr-x 88 gaurav gaurav 266240 Sep 17 18:24 .. drwxr-xr-x 2 gaurav gaurav 4096 Sep 17 18:25 dem1, drwxr-xr-x 2 gaurav gaurav 4096 Sep 17 18:25 dem2 drwxr-xr-x 2 gaurav gaurav 4096 Sep 17 18:25 dem3 drwxr-xr-x 2 gaurav gaurav 4096 Sep 17 18:25 dem4 -rw-r--r-- 1 gaurav gaurav 24 Sep 17 18:26 temp.c gaurav@ubuntu:~/project$
Now, using the
cp -r command we can copy the directory ‘project’ to any desired location.
gaurav@ubuntu:~$ cp -r /home/gaurav/project /home/gaurav/workspace gaurav@ubuntu:~$
gaurav@ubuntu:~/workspace$ ls -al total 408 drwxrwxr-x 4 gaurav gaurav 4096 Sep 17 18:27 . drwxr-xr-x 88 gaurav gaurav 266240 Sep 17 18:24 .. drwxrwxr-x 3 gaurav gaurav 4096 Mar 22 2018 .metadata drwxr-xr-x 6 gaurav gaurav 4096 Sep 17 18:27 project -rw-r--r-- 1 gaurav gaurav 1535 Sep 16 17:13 source.c gaurav@ubuntu:~/workspace$
In the output above, we can see that the directory ‘project’ is copied from the original location to this new location ‘/home/gaurav/workspace’. Now, let us open the directory ‘project’ and check if all the contents inside it are also copied.
gaurav@ubuntu:~$ cd ./workspace/project gaurav@ubuntu:~/workspace/project$
Note: I have used
./ here instead of entering the complete path. It simply means that it is my home directory path and workspace is located in my home or current working directory. For more clarification on this, you can check out this article.
gaurav@ubuntu:~/workspace/project$ ls -al total 28 drwxr-xr-x 6 gaurav gaurav 4096 Sep 17 18:27 . drwxrwxr-x 4 gaurav gaurav 4096 Sep 17 18:27 .. drwxr-xr-x 2 gaurav gaurav 4096 Sep 17 18:27 dem1, drwxr-xr-x 2 gaurav gaurav 4096 Sep 17 18:27 dem2 drwxr-xr-x 2 gaurav gaurav 4096 Sep 17 18:27 dem3 drwxr-xr-x 2 gaurav gaurav 4096 Sep 17 18:27 dem4 -rw-r--r-- 1 gaurav gaurav 24 Sep 17 18:27 temp.c gaurav@ubuntu:~/workspace/project$
From this output, we can conclude that all the contents of the directory ‘project’ are also moved to the new location.
Copying multiple directories from one location to another
To copy multiple directories,
cp command can be used in the same way as mentioned above. The only change here will be that you will need to enter the multiple source paths of the multiple directories to be copied.
cp -r [source_path_1] [source_path_n] [destination_path]
Let us check this command with an example.
gaurav@ubuntu:~/workspace$ cp -r ./snap ./project /home/gaurav/tomcat
Here, I have copied two directories ‘snap’ and ‘project’ from my current working directory to a new location ‘/home/gaurav/tomcat’.
Now let us check if the directories are copied with their content to the new location.
gaurav@ubuntu:~/tomcat$ ls -al total 9316 drwxrwxr-x 5 gaurav gaurav 4096 Sep 19 12:16 . drwxr-xr-x 88 gaurav gaurav 266240 Sep 19 12:15 .. drwxr-xr-x 6 gaurav gaurav 4096 Sep 19 12:16 project drwxr-xr-x 7 gaurav gaurav 4096 Sep 19 12:16 snap
Checking if the content of these directories are also copied.
gaurav@ubuntu:~/tomcat/snap$ ls couchdb eclipse htop pycharm-community vim-editor gaurav@ubuntu:~/tomcat/snap$
gaurav@ubuntu:~/tomcat/project$ ls dem1, dem2 dem3 dem4 temp.c gaurav@ubuntu:~/tomcat/project$
cp command with verbose mode
cp command with the option
-v enables the verbose mode. This feature displays the files on the terminal which are being copied. The name of the File or Folder which is being copied gets displayed on your terminal.
cp -vr [source_directory] [target_location_path]
gaurav@ubuntu:~$ cp -vr ./workspace/apache ./space
In this example, the directory ‘apache’ is copied to a new folder ‘space’. I have used the
-v option with
-r, so that all the contents of the apache directory also gets copied.
'./workspace/apache' -> './space/apache' './workspace/apache/apache-tomcat-8.0.52.tar.gz' -> './space/apache/apache-tomcat-8.0.52.tar.gz' gaurav@ubuntu:~$
The output displays the directory which is being copied. The same process can be done in case of copying multiple files.
Avoid overwriting when using
Sometimes while using the
cp command to copy multiple files or folders, you may end up overwriting files that are already copied to the new location. To avoid this it is advisable to use the
-i option with the
cp command. This will prompt you before overwriting any file or folder.
cp -ri [source_directory_path] [target_location_path]
Note: Here, in the syntax I have used
-r option as well. This is will copy the content of the directories also. It will also, check if any of these sub-folders and files inside the directory are being overwritten.
gaurav@ubuntu:~$ cp -ri ./workspace/snap ./tomcat cp: overwrite './tomcat/snap/pycharm-community/current'?
Here, I tried to copy a directory named ‘snap’ to a new location. But the directory name ‘snap’ already exists at the new location. Hence, I will be prompted by the terminal before overwriting the existing snap directory.
You can type ‘
Yes‘ or ‘
No‘ as the response to this prompt.
In case, if you do not use the
-i option, the existing directory will be overwritten by the new directory.
Skip overwriting of files and directories with
We can use the
-n option to directly instruct the terminal to never overwrite and simply skip similar files and directories while using the
cp -nr [source_directory_path] [target_location_path]
Using this command you can be sure that your files and folders will not be overwritten.
gaurav@ubuntu:~$ cp -ri ./workspace/snap ./tomcat gaurav@ubuntu:~$
Here, the directory ‘snap’ already exists at the target location. Hence, using
-n option will ensure not to overwrite this directory.
-i option, here you will not be prompted about the overwriting.
cp command to copy directories and their content in Linux is an easy process. To learn more about the
cp command with other available options, you can check out the manual page by typing
man cp in your Linux terminal.